孩子的智力遺傳自母親.jpg

第一篇文章

一項研究證明聰明才智來自母親而非父親

最近的遺傳學研究顯示出,智力來自女性的X染色體。而且,這類染色體有超過1,000個基因。這些基因很多會影響你的認知程度。

直到最近,專家認為父母雙方對孩子的智力都負有相同責任。這份研究發現兩者都具爭議性也都正確。

很多研究發現,遺傳學不是一個簡單的研究領域。建議人們從客觀的角度來看待這些發現。

這裡是XY染色體的功能:

染色體,實際上像條線的形狀,具備蛋白質以及核酸。它們轉移跟儲存遺傳的訊息。每個人在他們身體的每個細胞都有1對染色體。男生是1X1Y的染色體,女生是2X染色體。

還有,性別特定基因的遺傳特徵,不是關閉,就是啟動。這要看特定的選擇以及遺傳的屬性。此外,關閉的基因不會影響遺傳發展,而啟動的基因就會。這代表如果一個特徵受母親影響,父系的基因就會關閉。也代表,如果特徵受父親的影響,則母親的基因會關閉。

事實上,女性對認知力的影響機會來得更大,因為她們有2X染色體,而男性只有一個。

更進一步地,智力被認為是性別特定的基因,來自母親。研究員實際上使用了經過基因改造的老鼠來檢驗這個理論。他們得出的結論,用母體的遺傳染色體治療的一群,腦部和頭骨會異常較大,但體型較小。另一方面,用父系遺傳染色體治療的一群,發展出較小的大腦與頭骨,但體型較大。

更進一步地,研究人員還做了另一項引人入勝的研究,例如發現大腦有6個區塊,不是專屬於父系基因,就是專屬於母系基因。

在另一項研究中,來自蘇格蘭政府機構的研究人員,追踪12,687的樣本人數,年紀從12歲到22歲之間。他們採訪個案並觀察他們智力發展的方式,考慮到種族與教育背景。發現母親的智商,是智力最強大的指標。

那是為什麼母親對孩子的認知能力有很大的影響。但不單單只是因為遺傳。培育以及營養也會影響孩子一生的智力發展。母親在孩子的智商發展扮演一個角色,代表你的母親給了你那麼多的大腦智力。

http://www.positivethingsonly.com/study-proven-intelligence/

 

 

第二篇文章

孩子的聰明才智來自母親,而非父親

科學家如是說

 

研究人員指出,母親的遺傳因素決定她的孩子會有多聰明,父親則沒有造成差別。

女性比較可能將智力基因遺傳給她的孩子,因為她們帶有X染色體,而且是兩個,而男性只有一個。

除此之外,科學家現在相信,來自父親的先進認知功能基因,可能自動失效。

研究表示,貧困改變你的大腦,讓你比較不聰明。懶惰是高智商的象徵,聰明的人往往比較混亂,比較常保持清醒,發更多誓。

 

被歸於『條件基因』的一種基因,被認為某些情況來自母親,某些其他情況來自父親時,才會起作用。智力被認為是這種條件基因,必須來自母親。

實驗室研究發現,用基因改造的小鼠,使用超多劑量的母體基因,頭部和大腦比較大,體型比較小。而超多劑量的父系基因,大腦較小,體型較大。

研究人員指出,在小鼠大腦的六塊區域,在母體基因專屬區或父系基因專屬區,這些區域的細胞,控制不同的認知功能,從飲食習慣到記憶。

父系的基因細胞聚集在邊緣系統的部分中,與性,食物,攻擊有關。但研究人員在大腦皮質層,並沒有發現任何父系的基因細胞,那是最進化認知功能的所在區域,諸如推理,思考,語言與計劃。

想到人類可能跟老鼠不同,格拉斯哥的研究人員採用更人性化的方式,從1994年起每年訪談,共計12 686名的樣本人數,年齡在14歲至22歲之間。儘管考慮到很多因素,包括受訪者的教育,到種族社經地位等因素,該團隊仍然發現最佳預測因素是母親的智商。

然而,研究也清楚顯示,遺傳不是智商唯一的決定因素 -只有40%到60%的智商預估是來自遺傳,有些依賴於環境。

但也發現母親在非遺傳的智商部分,扮演極度重要的角色,一些研究顯示,母親和孩子之間的安全連結,與智商有密切關係。

華盛頓大學的研究人員發現,母親與孩子之間有個安全感的情感連結,對於大腦的某部分成長至關重要。分析一群母親與孩子們之間的關係七年後所發現的,研究人員發現,情感上受到支持,並且智商開展的孩子,他們的海馬體,比跟母親情感疏離的孩子,體積大上10%。海馬體是與記憶,學習和壓力反應相關的大腦區域。

與母親的親密相處,給予孩子安全感。讓他也能更加放心探索世界,有信心解決問題。除此,一個認真全心照顧的母親,傾向幫助孩子解決問題,更進一步幫助他們開展潛力。

當然,為何父親不能像母親一樣扮演更積極的滋養角色,研究人員也指出整體的基因決定特質,像是直覺以及情感,承繼自父親,也會是打開潛力智能的關鍵。所以做爸爸們的不要失望。

 

https://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/children-intelligence-iq-mother-inherit-inheritance-genetics-genes-a7345596.html

 

1st article

A Study Has Proven That Intelligence Comes from Mothers, Not from Fathers!

http://www.positivethingsonly.com/study-proven-intelligence/

 

A recent genetics study has shown that the intelligence comes from the female X chromosome. Moreover, this type of chromosome has over 1,000 genes. Many of these genes affect your perception level.

 

Until recently, experts thought that both parents are equally responsible for their kid’s intelligence. The study has been found both disputable and correct at the same time.

Many studies have found that genetics is not a simple field of research. It is recommended that people approach these findings from an objective point of view.

Here Is How Both X and Y Chromosomes Function:

 

A chromosome is actually a thread-like formation that possesses protein and nucleic acids. They transfer and store genetic information. Everyone has 1 pair of chromosomes in every single cell of their body. The males carry 1 X and 1 Y chromosome, whereas the females carry 2 X chromosomes.

 

Additionally, the genetic feature of gender-specific genes, are either deactivated or activated. This depends on the specific selection as well as genetic properties. In addition, the deactivated genes will not affect genetic development, whereas the activated genes will do so. This means that the paternal genes will be deactivated in case one characteristic is affected through the mother. This also means that the maternal genes will be deactivated in case one characteristic is affected through the father.

 

In fact, there is a greater chance for females to have an effect on the cognitive ability, because they have 2 X chromosomes, whereas males carry only 1.

 

Moreover, intelligence is considered to be a gender-specific gene that comes from the mothers. Researchers actually used mice that were genetically modified in order to examine this theory. They concluded that subjects treated with maternal genetic chromosomes had an abnormally greater brain and skull, but a smaller body. On the other hand, subjects treated with greater paternal genetic chromosome amounts developed a smaller brain and skull, but a greater body.

What’s more, researchers also did another fascinating research, such as finding 6 brain areas that possess exclusively either paternal or maternal genes.

 

In another study, researchers from a Scottish government agency followed 12,687 people between 14 and 22 years of age. They interviewed subjects and observed the way their intelligence developed, considering their ethnic and educational backgrounds. They found that a mother’s IQ is the most powerful indicator of intelligence.

 

That’s why mothers have a great impact on their kid’s cognitive capacity. But, it isn’t actually just due to genetics. Nurturing and nutrition can also affect a kid’s intellectual development throughout their lives. Mothers play a role in the kid’s intellectual development, which means that your mother gave you so much brain power.

 

 

 

 

2nd article:

Children inherit their intelligence

from their mother not their father, say scientists

 

A mother's genetics determines how clever her children are, according to researchers, and the father makes no difference.

 

Women are more likely to transmit intelligence genes to their children because they are carried on the X chromosome and women have two of these, while men only have one.

But in addition to this, scientists now believe genes for advanced cognitive functions which are inherited from the father may be automatically deactivated.

 

Poverty changes your brain to make you less intelligent, study suggests Research suggests being lazy is a sign of high intelligence Intelligent people tend to be messy, stay awake longer, and swear more

A category of genes known as “conditioned genes” are thought to work only if they come from the mother in some cases and the father in other cases. Intelligence is believed to be among the conditioned genes that have to come from the mother.

 

Laboratory studies using genetically modified mice found that those with an extra dose of maternal genes developed bigger heads and brains, but had little bodies. Those with an extra dose of paternal genes had small brains and larger bodies.

Researchers identified cells that contained only maternal or paternal genes in six different parts of the mouse brains which controlled different cognitive functions, from eating habits to memory.

 

Cells with paternal genes accumulated in parts of the limbic system, which is involved in functions such as sex, food and aggression. But researchers did not find any paternal cells in the cerebral cortex, which is where the most advanced cognitive functions take place, such as reasoning, thought, language and planning.

Concerned that people might not be like mice, researchers in Glasgow took a more human approach to exploring intelligence. They found the theories extrapolated from mice studies bear out in reality when they interviewed 12,686 young people between the ages of 14 and 22 every year from 1994. Despite taking into account several factors, from the participants education to their race and socio-economic status, the team still found the best predictor of intelligence was the IQ of the mother.

 

However, research also makes it clear that genetics are not the only determinant of intelligence - only 40 to 60 per cent of intelligence is estimated to be hereditary, leaving a similar chunk dependent on the environment.

 

But mothers have also been found to play an extremely significant role in this non-genetic part of intelligence, with some studies suggesting a secure bond between mother and child is intimately tied to intelligence.

 

Researchers at the University of Washington found that a secure emotional bond between a mother and child is crucial for the growth of some parts of the brain. After analysing the way a group of mothers related to their children for seven years, the researchers found children who were supported emotionally and had their intellectual needs fulfilled had a 10 per cent larger hippocampus at 13 on average than children whose mothers were emotionally distant. The hippocampus is an area of the brain associated with memory, learning and stress response.

 

A strong bond with the mother is thought to give a child a sense of security which allows them to explore the world, and the confidence to solve problems. In addition, devoted, attentive mothers tend to help children solve problems, further helping them to reach their potential.

 

Of course, there's no reason why fathers can't play as big a nurture role as mothers. And researchers point out that a whole array of other gene determined traits - like intuiton and emotions - which can be inherited from the father are also key to unlocking potential intelligence, so fathers - don't despair. 

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